Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th ed.
This guide divides references into different formats for ease of use. Hover your cursor over the APA Formats tab above to select the format you want, or select from the links below.
Rules for naming authors, in-text and the reference list, are given mainly under Books & eBooks but they apply to all reference types. In most examples of in-text citations with multiple authors only the first iteration of the citation is given.
|Books and eBooks||3-5 authors repeated citations||For 1,2,3-5 or 6-7 authors see examples under Books & eBooks|
|Chapter in book||Article from CMO||8 or more authors|
|Conference proceedings and papers||Author & publisher the same||Author/year same, 2 or more works|
|Dictionary/encyclopaedia entries||Citing a work that someone else has cited||Editor/s|
|Images||Direct quotes & paraphrases||First author/ year same, 3+ authors 2+ works|
|Journal articles||Multiple citations in same parentheses||Linking multiple authors: & or and|
|Multimedia & Software||No date available (n.d.)||No author - Article|
|Music resources||Numbered edition other than 1st||No author - Book|
|Newspapers & Magazines||Parentheses () or brackets  for extra information||Organisation as author|
|Personal Communications||PowerPoints and Lecture Notes|
|Reports||Retrieved from a database|
|Standards & Patents||Retrieval date (if required)
|Tables & Figures (republished or
|Title which includes a subtitle|
|Web sources (pages, blogs, social media, etc)|
(Anderson & Reid, 2009; Howitt & Cramer, 2008)
Anderson, M., & Reid, C. (2009). Don't forget about levels of explanation. Cortex, 45(4), 560-561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2008.06.005
Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2008). Introduction to research methods in psychology (2nd ed.). Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall.
If you need to refer to a work that has been cited in a paper you have read but which you have not read yourself then the cited work is only referred to as part of the in-text citation. The reference list entry is for the paper you have read.
O'Reilly (as cited in Byrne, 2008) argues that...
Byrne, A. (2008). Web 2.0 strategies in libraries and information services. The Australian Library Journal, 57(4), 365-376.