APA referencing is the author-date style of referencing described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. In this style, each reference consists of an in-text citation of the author and date, with the full details in the reference list at the end of the document.
How to use this APA 7 Referencing guide:
If using EndNote version 20 the APA 7 style is available within the software; see the Selecting Styles in EndNote tab at this link for instructions.
The 2 parts to acknowledging reference material in the APA style work in partnership, to indicate to your reader where your ideas have come from and how they can locate the original source of these:
APA7 style requires that in-text citations consist of the author(s) and date, in brackets, with a comma in between, eg; (Smith, 2020).
Empirical research focused on guided imagery interventions supports the efficacy of the technique with a variety of populations within hospital settings, with positive outcomes for individuals diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and eating dosorders (Itay & Miller, 2006).
|Single author||Two authors||Three or more authors|
Both author's surnames, in the same order as on the publication, separated by an ampersand ('&')
If using the author's name in your sentence (a "narrative reference") spell out the 'and'
|List the first author's surname only, followed by "et al."|
(Xi & Carson, 2019)
Salas and D'Agostino (2020) found that ...
(Martin et al., 2020)
Example: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020) in the first reference, then (NIMH, 2020) in subsequent references.
If citing multiple items in the same point in your document, place in alphabetical order by first author's surname with a semicolon between them. For example, (Barker & Atif, 2019; Lai, 2019).
Include a page number/s in your in-text reference where you are directly quoting. However it is best to paraphrase. Only quote if the original author's exact wording is definitely required. See this "Quotations" section of the APA Blog for guidance on when to use direct quotes and how to construct intext references from materials with and without page numbers.
Guided imagery and relaxation techniques have even been found to “reduce distress and allow the immune system to function more effectively” (Trakhtenberg, 2008, p. 850).
View our example text for a demonstration of the use of direct quotations and page numbers within an in-text reference.
Paraphrase by summarising, rephrasing and restating in your own words, an idea taken from a source. Although not required, it would be beneficial to include page numbers to facilitate locating specific passages connected to the paraphrased idea within a lengthy work, such as in a book.
See this "Paraphrasing" section of the APA Blog for an example of providing page numbers for an in-text citation of a paraphrased idea.
The reference list contains enough information for the reader to locate the source you have referenced. See below for the basic information to include in all reference list entries and how they should be formatted, based on the APA Style Blog page Basic Principles of Reference List Entries and Elements of Reference List Entries. Refer to the examples to see exactly how these rules are applied.