Personal Communication relates to any recorded speech, lecture, or PowerPoint that is not readily accessible to your audience through an existing publication either in print or through an online link.
Common examples include:
If your audience won’t be able to access the personal communication then you won’t need to provide a full reference at the end, instead:
If your audience can access the personal communication then you provide the usual paired in-text and end-text reference for that format.
Decision Making Cues:
Note: See the special considerations for oral traditions and knowledge of indigenous peoples, for Quotations from Research Participants and materials from Archival Documents and Collections; all of which are not considered personal communication.
See the APA Style Blog for further guidance or consult the APA Manual.
|Material Type||In-Text Citation (no end-text reference required)|
There was strong disagreement expressed by A. Smith (Personal Communication, January 30, 2020)
|When contacted for comment there was strong disagreement expressed against conciliation (A.Smith, email, January 30, 2020)|
|Performance||During the performance, there was significant use of the cockney vernacular (J. Brown, performance, March 10, 2021)|
|Social media only available to private members||Members of the online community showed strong stereotypical views of activists, with one referring to them as "useless hippies" (G. Foss, comment in a private Facebook group, April 20, 2021)|
According to M. Kragt (Online lecture, February 18, 2021), Science Communication has been identified as vital to climate change initiatives.
Note: Treated as personal communication as the intended audience will not have access to the UWA LMS.