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Referencing style - APA 7th: Music and audiovisual resources

A guide to using the APA 7th edition referencing system for in-text citations and reference lists.

APA examples: Music and audiovisual resources


See our APA7 Style Guidelines for advice on treatment of single to multiple authors, dates, page numbers and sources within your in-text and end-text references.  

See The APA Style Blog for more audio visual referencing examples.  

Note:  For any lecture notes or PowerPoints slides, or any communication not accessible to your intended audience, treat as personal communication


Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Musical score (Berlioz, 1830/1984)

Berlioz, H. (1984). Symphonie Fantastique [Musical score]. Dover Publications. (Original work published 1830)

Musical score in another language (Mozart, 1775/1978)

Mozart, W. A. (1978). La finta giardiniera [The pretend garden-girl] [Vocal score]. Bärenreiter. (Original work published 1775)

Film (Yeaworth, 1958)

Yeaworth, I. S. (Director). (1958). The blob [Film]. Tonylyn Productions Inc; Valley Forge Films; Fairview Productions.

Online lecture (Kragt, 2021)

Kragt, M. (2021, February 18). Welcome to SCIE4403 [Online Lecture], LMS@UWA,

PowerPoint slides from LMS (Mack & Spake, 2018)

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU. 

When referencing slides from a site restricted to particular people (eg; a classroom website, learning management system like Blackboard, or company intranet) follow the examples above only if your intended readers have access to the site. Provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login).If the audience for which are you writing does not have access to the slides, cite them as a personal communication.

PowerPoint slides from internet

 (Surden 2017) 

Surden, H (2017, October, 20).  Artificial intelligence overview [PowerPoint slides], SlideShare.

TED Talk from YouTube (TED, 2021)

TED. (2021, March 19). Why there's no such thing as objective reality | Greg Anderson [Video]. YouTube.

Note:  If sourcing from the TED Talk website, use the name of the speakers as the author, as per this APA example.

YouTube video (MIT Technology Review, 2016)

MIT Technology Review. (2016, December 17). Meet the world's first completely soft robot [Video]. YouTube.

Podcast (Kirby, 2017–present)

Kirby, J. (Host). (2017–present). The Australian’s money café [Audio podcast]. The Australian.

Note: For referencing a specific podcast episode, see this APA example.


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