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MLA referencing style: Examples for MLA 8th ed

A guide to using the MLA referencing system for in-text citations and reference lists.

In-Text & Works Cited Examples

Books & eBooks Lecture Notes
Journal Articles Theses
Internet/Websites Personal Communication
Conference Papers & Proceedings Other Materials/Sources
Newspapers In-text citations
Multimedia Formats Indirect Sources


Books & eBooks

Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Book: Single Author

(Mathy 150) or Mathy has discussed (150)...

Mathy, Jean-Philippe. French Resistance: The French-American Culture Wars. Minneasota UP, 2000.

Book: 2 Authors (Beuving and de Vries 123-125)

Beuving, Joost, and Gert C. de Vries. Doing Qualitative Research: The Craft of Naturalistic Inquiry. Amsterdam University Press, 2015.

Book: 3 of More Authors (Quirk et al. 130)

Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman, 1985.

Book: No Author (The New Zealand Official Year Book 50)

The New Zealand Official Year Book. 12th ed., Government Printer, 1987.

Book: Editor (Shell 29-31)

Shell, Marc, editor. American Babel: Literatures of the United States from Abnaki to Zuni. Harvard UP, 2002.

Book: Editor & author (Bronte 40)

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.

Book: 2 Editors (Bullinger and Warnecke 30)

Bullinger, H.J., and H. J. Warnecke, editors. Toward the factory of the future. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1985.

Book: Translator & Author

(Allende 20)

Allende, Isabel. Daughter of Fortune. Translated by Margaret Sayers Peden, Harper, 2000.

Book: Organisation as Author


(A Practical Guide and Workbook 11)


A Practical Guide and Workbook for Completing a MOSHH Assessment in Your Workplace: Chemical Safety. Occupational Safety & Health Service, Department of Labour, 1997.

[When a work is published by an organisation and it is also the author, begin with reference entry with the title, and list the organisation as the publisher.]

Book: Chapter or Article in Edited Book*

*An edited book is a collection of scholarly or scientific chapters written by different authors

(Browne 44)

Browne, Tom J. "The Role of Geographical Information Systems in Hydrology." Sediment and Water Quality in River Catchments, edited by Ian Foster, et al., John Wiley & Sons, 1995, pp. 33-48.

E-book (Kerzner 15)

Kerzner, Harold. Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling. 10th ed., Wiley, 2009. Ebook Library,

Book: Different Works by Same Author in Same Year (Bond, Business Ethics 23) (Bond, Corporate Governance 50)

Bond, Graeme. Business Ethics. McGraw-Hill, 1991.

Bond, Graeme. Corporate Governance. Irwin, 1991.

Anthology or Collection (Hill and Helmers 123)

Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, editors. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Multivolume publication (O'Shaughnessy 2: 23)

O'Shaughnessy, Brian. The Will: A Dual Aspect Theory. Cambridge University Press, 1980. 2 vols.

Work in an Anthology or Collection (Harris 50)


Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rapoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.

Poem (Burns 26)

Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.

Short Story (Kincaid 306)

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

Citing a source Reprinted within another source (Johnson 180)


Johnson, Barbara. “My Monster / My Self.” The Barbara Johnson Reader: The Surprise of Otherness, edited by Melissa Feuerstein et al., Duke UP, 2014, pp. 179-90. Originally published in Diacritics, vol. 12, no. 2, 1982, pp. 2-10.

For more information, see pp. 52-53 of the MLA Handbook or MLA Style Centre FAQs .

Journal Articles

Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Journal Article: Print (Piper 126)

Piper, Andrew. "Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and the Book of Everything." PMLA, vol. 121, no. 1, 2006, pp. 124-38.

Journal Article: Electronic Database (Goldman 81)


Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR,

[Where possible, cite a DOI (preceded by doi:) instead of a URL.]

Journal Article: Online (Berman 12)


Berman, Russell. “The Necessity of Language Learning.” ADFL Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 2, 2015, pp. 11-14, doi:10.1632/adfl.43.2.11.

[Where possible, cite a DOI (preceded by doi:) instead of a URL.]

[Omit http:// or https:// in URLs. For more information, see section 2.5.2 (p. 110) of the MLA Handbook.]


Journal Article: Article title that includes a book title (Adams 58)


Adams, Amanda. “‘Painfully Southern’: Gone with the Wind, the Agrarians, and the Battle for the New South.” Southern Literary Journal, vol. 40, no. 1, Fall 2007, p. 58-75. Project Muse,

Set a book title in italics if recorded in an article title. For more information, see section 1.2.4 (pp. 71-73) of the MLA Handbook, or MLA Style Centre FAQ.


Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Webpage: No Author

(Romance Languages)

[Use first few words of the page title]

"Romance Languages and Literatures Resources Page". University of Chicago, Accessed 6 July 2015.

Website (Felluga)

Felluga, Dino. "Guide to Literary and Critical Theory." Purdue University, 28 November 2003,

Blog Posting/ Discussion Group


SalmarISIS [Sal Hernandez]. "Re. Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max. Number of Rooms?" BoardGameGeek, 29 September 2008,

Computer Software (Maps 'n' Facts) Maps 'n' Facts. Computer Software, 1995.
Web Based Image / table / figure (Klee)

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922, Oil, watercolour and ink on paper, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Museum of Modern Art, Accessed 1 July 2009.

Conference Papers & Proceedings

Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Conference Proceeding Paper: Print (Mann 178)

Mann, Jill. "Chaucer and the 'Woman Question.'" This Noble Craft: Proceedings of the Tenth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January 1989, edited by Erik Kooper, Rodopi, 1991, pp. 173-88.

Conference Proceeding Paper: Unpublished (Smith 234)

Smith, John. The Matter that makes up Protons and Neutrons, Proc. of 23rd Annual National Science Conference, July 2007, Anaheim Convention Centre, Unpublished conference proceedings, Library of Physics, New York City, 2008.


Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Newspaper: Print (Knowles 5-6)

Knowles, Gabrielle. "Exhileration in Antarctica." The West Australian, 18 Feb. 2010, pp. 5-6.

Newspaper: Electronic Database (Urban 21)

Urban, Rebecca. "How much is too much for an executive summary?" The Australian, 9 Jan. 2010, pp. 21-24. Factiva.

Newspaper: From a Website (Yeoman)

Yeoman, William. "Theatre Review: Wunderschon." The West Australian, 17 Feb. 2010,

Multimedia Formats

Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example




(It is a Wonderful Life)



It is a Wonderful Life. Directed by Frank Capra, performances by James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell, Republic, 1946.


Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

[If you are citing the contribution of a particular individual to a film, begin with that person's name.]

Television Programme (The Phantom of Corleone)

"The Phantom of Corleone." Sixty Minutes, written by Steve Kroft Narr, CBS, WCBS, New York, 10 Dec. 2006.

Audio Podcast (Black Hole Death Ray)

"Black Hole Death Ray." StarStuff, reported by Stuart Gary, from ABC News Radio, 23 Dec. 2007.

Video Podcast (From Lake to the Halfway Mark...)

"From Lake to the Halfway Mark, Yekaterinburg." Peking to Paris: Episode 3, reported by Warren Brown and Keith Brodie, produced by Peter George, 4 Jun. 2007, ABC Television.

Sound Recording (Beethoven)

Beethoven, Ludwig van. The 9 Symphonies. Performed by NBC Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Arturo Toscani, RCA, 2003.

Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs etc.) (Beethoven) Beethoven, Ludwig van. Moonlight Sonata. Crownstar, 2006. MP3.

Lecture Notes

Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Lecture Notes (Stengos)

Stengos, T. "ECON4640 Applied Econometrics Course Notes." 28 March 2003. University of Guelph.


Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Thesis: Unpublished (Stolley 100)

Stolley, Karl. "Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory." MA Thesis, Purdue University, 2002.

Thesis: Published (Bile 250)

Bile, Jeffry. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric Toward a Dialectical Partnership. Dissertation, Ohio University, 2005. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2006. AAT 3191791.

Thesis: Retrieved From a Database (Pecore 123)

Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2004. UMD Dissertations and Theses,

Thesis: Free Web (Caprette)

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State University, 2005.

Personal Communication

Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Email (O'Malley)

O'Malley, Martin. "Re: The future of the Chesapeake Bay." Received by the author, 27 August 2009.

Personal Interview (Mote)

Mote, Dan. Personal Interview. 7 August 2009.

Published Interview (Gaitskill)

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999, pp. 129-50.

Personal Letter (Thompson) Thompson, Carolyn. Letter to the author, 14 September 1998, MS.
Letter to the Editor (Smith 10) Smith, Kate. Letter. The West Australian, 10 February 2008, p. 10.

Other Materials/Sources

Material Type

In-Text Example

Works Cited Example

Book/ Film Review (Updike 25)

Updike, John. "Fine Points." Review of The New Fowler's Modern English Usage, edited by R.W. Burchfield. New Yorker, 23-30 Dec. 2003.

Brochure/ Pamphlet (Modern Language Association 1)

Modern Language Association Announces New and Improved MLA Language Map. Modern Language Association, 2006.

Painting/ Photograph (Goya)

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Painting, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Oral Presentation (Stein)

Stein, Bob. "Reading and Writing in the Digital Era." Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conferences, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.

In-text citations

Two or more works cited at one point in the text

If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them:

(Larsen 54; Malinowski 327-328)

The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.


Two authors or authoring bodies

When citing a work by two authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Malinowski and Gupta 327-328) 

Indirect Sources

If it is not possible to take information from the original source, make sure it is clear that you are quoting from another book. In these cases "qtd. in" meaning "quoted in" is used in the reference.

   (qtd. in Smith 2: 326)

This example indicates that the citation is "quoted by" Smith in volume 2, page 326 of his work. The full citation would appear in the Reference List at the end of the paper.


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