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Referencing style - Vancouver (based on Citing Medicine): Journal article

A guide to using the Vancouver citation style for in text citations and reference lists.

Journal article

Note on authors/editors:

Citing Medicine lists all authors/editors in the reference list, however they do state “The following formats are not NLM practice for citing authors, but are acceptable options: If space is a consideration, the number of authors may be limited to a specific number, such as the first three authors or first six authors. Follow the last named author with a comma and “et al.” or “and others”. Check with your Unit Coordinator for more information.

Note on journal titles:

The titles of journals must be abbreviated according to the National Library of Medicines NLM catalog: Journals referenced in the NCBI database.

If using EndNote you can install the Medicine Journal Terms List, which includes over 14,000 journal title abbreviations. 

If you cannot find a particular journal title in the NLM catalog try the following:

CAS Source Index (CASSI) search tool
Index Medicus abbreviations of journal titles

For additional sources for journal title abbreviations see Citing Medicine Appendix B.

Lastly, as per Citing Medicine Appendix A, it is also acceptable to build a journal title abbreviation from common word abbreviations listed on ISSN’s List of Title Word Abbreviations


Material   Type Reference List Example (based on Citing Medicine 2nd edition) 

EndNote (Citing Medicine)

The following instructions are based on using the Citing Medicine 2 (UWA) style with EndNote 20 and 21. 

Journal article [print]


Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Author - if more than one author, enter each on a separate line. (See note above re number of authors listed).

Journal article [print]

No author

Pelvic floor exercise can reduce stress incontinence. Health News. 2005 Apr;11(4):11.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Begin reference with title of the article if no person or organisation can be identified as the author and no editors or translators are given.

Journal article

In Press or Forthcoming 

O'Rourke E, Hussain R, Buscombe JR, Hilson AJ. Overlying urostomy bag simulating urinary leak in a postrenal transplant MAG3 study. Clin Nucl Med. Forthcoming 2006.


Reich T, Gefen A. Effect of trabecular bone loss on cortical strain rate during impact in an in vitro model of avian femur. Biomed Eng Online [Internet]. Forthcoming 2006.

Type: Journal Article

Year - add Forthcoming and expected publication date if known, eg. Forthcoming 2019 Dec 10. (Forthcoming is preferred term of NLM).


Electronic journal article with DOI

Harrison JJ, Ceri H, Yerly J, Stremick CA, Hu Y, Martinuzzi R, Turner RJ. The use of microscopy and three-dimensional visualization to evaluate the structure of microbial biofilms cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device. Biol Proced Online [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2019 Jan 10];8(1):194-215. Available from: doi: 10.1251/bpo127

Reference Type: Electronic Article

DOI – add the DOI number (not the whole DOI link). 

Year Cited- 2019

Date Cited - Jan 10

   URL – copy and paste 

NB DOI is optional, but URL is required.

Electronic journal article without DOI

As above, leave out DOI.

Reference Type: Electronic Article

More examples

For more article examples see Citing Medicine Ch. 1 Journals

For more electronic article examples see Citing Medicine Ch. 23 Journals on the Internet


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