This guide divides references into different formats for ease of use. Hover your cursor over the Vancouver Examples tab above to select the format you want, or select from the links below.
The overarching principle in referencing or citing is readers should be able to follow your sources if they are interested in finding out more about a topic. You should acknowledge other authors whose ideas or information you have used.
Examples with author names in the text of the document
One author : Smith’s research……9
Two authors : Avery and Williams5 research demonstrates
More than 2 authors or authors and a group, include the first author’s surname followed by “et al,” “and associates,” or “and colleagues.”
Doe7 reported on the survey.
Doe and Roe8 reported on the survey.
Doe et al9 reported on the survey.
Note: Do not use the possessive form et al's; rephrase the sentence.
The data of Doe et al9 support our findings.
Example of multiple authors in the reference list
One to five authors/editors : List all in the reference list.
1. Avery M, Williams F. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology. J Pharm Pract [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2016 Jan 27];28(1):26-30. doi:10.1177/0897190014562382
Six or more authors/editors: List the first three authors/editors then et al.
2. Lilienfeld SO, Lynn SJ, Namy LL, et al. Psychology: from inquiry to understanding. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Pearson; 2014. 828 p.
No author or editor: List the title first
3. Prevention strategies for asthma: secondary prevention. CMAJ [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2016 Feb 3];173(6 Suppl):S25-7. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/ 173/6_suppl/S25
The Vancouver Style is based on a style adapted by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The two publications shown below have been used to construct all citation examples in this guide.