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Vancouver citation style: Vancouver examples

A guide to using the Vancouver citation style for in text citations and reference lists.

References by format

This guide divides references into different formats for ease of use. Hover your cursor over the Vancouver Examples tab above to select the format you want, or select from the links below.

The overarching principle in referencing or citing is readers should be able to follow your sources if they are interested in finding out more about a topic.  You should acknowledge other authors whose ideas or information you have used.

Examples with author names in the text of the document

One author : Smith’s research……9

Two authors : Avery and Williams5  research demonstrates

More than 2 authors or authors and a group, include the first author’s surname followed by “et al,” “and associates,” or “and colleagues.”

Doe7 reported on the survey.

Doe and Roe8 reported on the survey.

Doe et al9 reported on the survey.

Note: Do not use the possessive form et al's; rephrase the sentence.

The data of Doe et al9 support our findings.


Example of multiple authors in the reference list

One to six authors/editors : List all in the reference list.

1.          Avery M, Williams F. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology. J Pharm Pract [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2016 Jan 27];28(1):26-30. doi:10.1177/0897190014562382


More than six authors/editors: List the first six authors/editors then et al.

2.          de Lima M, McNiece I, Robinson SN, Munsell M, Eapen M, Horowitz M, et al. Cord-blood engraftment with ex vivo mesenchymal-cell coculture. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(24):2305-15.


No author or editor: List the title first

3.            Prevention strategies for asthma: secondary prevention. CMAJ [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2016 Feb 3];173(6 Suppl):S25-7. Available from: 173/6_suppl/S25

More information

The Vancouver Style is based on a style adapted by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The two publications shown below have been used to construct all citation examples in this guide.

 Citing Medicine

Patrias, K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed.
Wendling, DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007
[updated 2009 Jan 14; cited 2009 Apr 5]. Available from:

AMA Manual of Style

American Medical Association manual of style: a guide for authors
and editors. 10th ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
[Medical and Dental Library   Main collection   808.06661 1998 AME]

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