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Vancouver citation style: Vancouver examples

A guide to using the Vancouver citation style for in text citations and reference lists.

References by format

This guide divides references into different formats for ease of use. Hover your cursor over the Reference formats tab above to select the format you want, or select from the links below.

The overarching principle in referencing or citing is readers should be able to follow your sources if they are interested in finding out more about a topic.  You should acknowledge other authors whose ideas or information you have used.

More information

The Vancouver Style is based on a style adapted by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The two publications shown below have been used to construct all citation examples in this guide.

 Citing Medicine

Patrias, K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed.
Wendling, DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007
[updated 2009 Jan 14; cited 2009 Apr 5]. Available from:

AMA Manual of Style

American Medical Association manual of style: a guide for authors
and editors. 10th ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
[Medical and Dental Library   Main collection   808.06661 1998 AME]

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