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AGLC referencing guide: All Examples

This guide provides basic information about formatting footnotes and bibliographies with the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (3rd edition).

Footnote and Bibliography Examples

 Caution! 

This guide is NOT exhaustive. It simply lists examples for a few common reference types, focusing on Australian materials. Need more? Consult the full AGLC (3rd edition) manual online

  

Cases

Material Type

Footnote Example

 Bibliography Example

Reported Judgments

Chamberlain v R (No 2) (1984) 153 CLR 521.

Chamberlain v R (No 2) (1984) 153 CLR 521


 

Nydam v The Queen [1977] VR 430.

Nydam v The Queen [1977] VR 430

 

DPP (WA) v Silbert (2000) 112 A Crim R 88

DPP (WA) v Silbert (2000) 112 A Crim R 88

 

Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v C G Berbatis Holdings Pty Ltd (2003) 214 CLR 51. 

Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v C G Berbatis Holdings Pty Ltd (2003) 214 CLR 51

Unreported Decisions with a Medium Neutral Citation (more info here)

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 (23 September 2009).

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 (23 September 2009)

Unreported Decisions without a Medium Neutral Citation (more info here)

Ross v Chambers (Unreported, Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956) 77.

Ross v Chambers (Unreported, Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956) 77

Legislation

Material Type

Footnote Example

Bibliography Example

Australian Constitutions

Australian Constitution s 22.

Australian Constitution

Statutes (Acts of Parliament)

Criminal Code Act Compilation Act 1913 (WA) s 5 ('Criminal Code'). 

Criminal Code s 8. 

Note: A short title may be given to a portion of an Act, a piece of delegated legislation or a Bill. The short title should be placed after the pinpoint to the relevant portion. See Rule 3.9.2 of the AGLC manual.

Criminal Code Act Compilation Act 1913 (WA)

 

Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) s 52.

Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth)

 

 Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Act 2006 (Cth) sch 1 item 46.

Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Act 2006 (Cth)

Delegated Legislation (rules, regulations, orders)

Criminal Procedure Regulations 2005 (WA) reg 6A.

Criminal Procedure Regulations 2005 (WA)

 

Federal Court Rules 1979 (Cth) OO 3, 5.

Note: For futher details on abbreviations see AGLC guide, Table 3.3.2.

Federal Court Rules 1979 (Cth)

Gazettes

Western Australia, Western Australian Government Gazette, No 30, 28 February 2014, 526.

Western Australia, Western Australian Government Gazette, No 30, 28 February 2014

Bills

Criminal Investigation (Identifying People) Amendment Bill 2012 (WA) cl 3.

Criminal Investigation (Identifying People) Amendment Bill 2012 (WA)

Explanatory Memoranda

Explanatory Memorandum, Conservation and Land Management Amendment Bill 2002 (WA).

Explanatory Memorandum, Conservation and Land Management Amendment Bill 2002 (WA)

Books & eBooks 

Material Type

Footnote Example

Bibliography Example

Book: Single author

Natalie Van der Waarden, Understanding Employment Law: Concepts and Cases (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2013) 199.

Van der Waarden, Natalie, Understanding Employment Law: Concepts and Cases (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2013)

Book: Two or three authors

Kelley Burton, Thomas Crofts and Stella Tarrant, Principles of Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia (Lawbook, 2011) 80-1.

Burton, Kelley, Thomas Crofts and Stella Tarrant, Principles of Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia (Lawbook, 2011)

Book: More than 3 Authors

1 Michael Tilbury et al, Remedies: Commentary and Materials (Thomson Reuters, 5th ed, 2011) 701-11.

Tilbury, Michael et al, Remedies: Commentary and Materials (Thomson Reuters, 5th ed, 2011)                                                                                                      

Book: Organisation as Aathor    

McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Carswell Thomson, 4th ed, 1998). 

Note: "McGill Law Journal" is the author, as an organisation.

McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Carswell Thomson, 4th ed, 1998)

Book: No Author 

1 Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2003) 943.

 Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2003)

Book: Editor/s

1 Paul Martin et al (eds), Environmental Governance and Sustainability (Edward Elgar, 2012).

Martin, Paul et al (eds), Environmental Governance and Sustainability (Edward Elgar, 2012)

Book: Chapters in edited books

1 Jeff Berryman and Robyn Carroll, 'Cy-près as a Class Action Remedy - Justly Maligned or Just Misunderstood?' in Kit Barker and Darryn Jensen (eds), Private Law: Key Encounters with Public Law (Cambridge University Press, 2013) 320-22.

Berryman, Jeff and Robyn Carroll, 'Cy-près as a Class Action Remedy - Justly Maligned or Just Misunderstood?' in Kit Barker and Darryn Jensen (eds), Private Law: Key Encounters with Public Law (Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Book: Multi-volume

E J Cohn and W Zdzieblo, Manual of German Law (Oceana Publications, 2nd revised ed, 1968) vol 1, 91. 

Cohn, E J and W Zdzieblo, Manual of German Law (Oceana Publications, 2nd revised ed, 1968) vol 1

Book: Translations

1 The Qur'an (Tarif Khalisi trans, Harvard University Press, 1972).

The Qur'an (Tarif Khalisi trans, Harvard University Press, 1972)

Book: eBook

1 Robert Baldwin, Martin Cave and Martin Lodge, Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy, and Practice (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2012).

Note: Cite an eBook as you would a print book.

Baldwin, Robert, Martin Cave and Martin Lodge, Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy, and Practice (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2012)

Book: Looseleaf Service (frequently updated) in print

1 Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Thomson Reuters, ASIC Digest, vol 1 (at Update 385) [IR 08.3].

Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Thomson Reuters, ASIC Digest, vol 1 (at Update 385)

Book: Looseleaf Service (frequently updated) online   

1 LexisNexis Butterworths, ABC of Evidence (at 12 August 2013) [400].

Note: If accessed online, omit the volume number.  Include the service number if available.  Otherwise, include the date accessed.

LexisNexis Butterworths, ABC of Evidence (at 12 August 2013)

Journal Articles 

Material Type

Footnote Example

Bibliography Example

Journal Article: One author, no issue number

1 Augusto Zimmerman, ‘How Brazilian Judges Undermine the Rule of Law.  A Critical Appraisal’ (2008) 11 International Trade and Business Law Review 179, 184.

Zimmerman, Augusto, ‘How Brazilian Judges Undermine the Rule of Law.  A Critical Appraisal’ (2008) 11 International Trade and Business Law Review 179

Journal Article: Two authors, issue number, with pinpoint   

1 Simon Young and Sarah Murray, 'An Elegant Convergence? The Constitutional Entrenchment of Jurisdictional Error Review in Australia, (2011) 11(2) Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal 117, 118.

Young, Simon and Sarah Murray, 'An Elegant Convergence? The Constitutional  Entrenchment of Jurisdictional Error Review in Australia' (2011) 11(2) Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal 117

Journal Article: No author, no issue number

1 Note, 'Live Free and Nullify: Against Purging Capital Juries of Death Penalty Opponents' (2014) 127 Harvard Law Review 2092. 

Note: If the article is unsigned, the type of article, such as Note or Comment, is listed. If the type isn't clear, begin the entry with the title. 

Note, 'Live Free and Nullify: Against Purging Capital Juries of Death Penalty Opponents' (2014) 127 Harvard Law Review 2092 

Journal Article: Online journal, more than two authors, issue number with pinpoint

1 Sally Kift, Rachael Field and Ian Wells, ‘Promoting Sustainable Professional Futures for Law Graduates through Curriculum Renewal in Legal Education: A Final Year Experience (FYE2)’ (2008) 15(2)  eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 145,146 <https://elaw.murdoch.edu.au/archives/issues/2008/2/
elaw_15_2_Kift_Fieldz-Wells.pdf
>.

Note: Use this format ONLY if the journal is ONLY available online. Otherwise, cite it as a print journal. The print citation is used in most cases. See AGLC 4.9.

Kift, Sally, Rachael Field, and Ian Wells, ‘Promoting Sustainable Professional Futures for Law Graduates through Curriculum Renewal in Legal Education: A Final Year Experience (FYE2)’ (2008) 15(2)  eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 145 <https://elaw.murdoch.edu.au/archives/issues/2008/2/
elaw_15_2_Kift_Fieldz-Wells.pdf
>

Newspapers

Material Type

 

Footnote Example

 

Bibliography Example

Newspaper Article: signed, with pinpoint

1 Ellen Whinnet, 'Industry Poll Reserves Greens' Survey Forestry Offensive', The Mercury (Hobart), 25 September 2004, 3.

Whinnet, Ellen, 'Industry Poll Reserves Greens' Survey Forestry Offensive', The Mercury (Hobart), 25 September 2004

Newspaper Article: unsigned, with pinpoint

1 'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne), 6 June 2005, 4.

'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne), 6 June 2005

Newspaper Article: only available online, no page numbers

1 Farrah Tomazin, 'Kinder Wages Breakthrough', The Age (online), 19 May 2009 <http://www.theage.com/au/national/education/kinder-wages-breakthrough-20090519.bcwh.html>.

Tomazin, Farrah,  'Kinder Wages Breakthrough', The Age (online), 19 May 2009 <http://www.theage.com/au/national/education/kinder-wages-breakthrough-20090519.bcwh.html>

Dictionaries and encyclopedias

Material Type

 

Footnote Example

 

Bibliography Example

Legal Dictionary: Print   

1 Mick Woodley (ed), Osborn's Concise Law Dictionary (Sweet and Maxwell, 11th ed, 2009).

Woodley, Mick (ed), Osborn's Concise Law Dictionary (Sweet and Maxwell, 11th ed, 2009)

Legal Dictionary: Online  

1 LexisNexis, Encyclopaedic Australian Legal Dictionary (at 10 September 2013) 'Comity'.

Note: Include the date last updated or date accessed.  The title of the dictionary entry is at the end in quotation marks.

LexisNexis, Encyclopaedic Australian Legal Dictionary (at 10 September 2013)

Macquarie Dictionary: Online

1 Susan Butler (ed), Macquarie Dictionary (online ed, at 24 April 2015) 'Specific'.

Note: Include the date last updated or date accessed.  The title of the dictionary entry is at the end in quotation marks.

Butler, Susan (ed), Macquarie Dictionary (online ed, at 24 April 2015)

Encyclopaedia: Print or online

1 Thomson Reuters, The Laws of Australia (at 23 May 2013) 21 Human Rights, '4 Civil and Political Rights' [21.4.180].

Note: Where a legal encyclopaedia is viewed online, the volume number is omitted.  If the date of last update is indicated, this should be included in the footnote.  Otherwise, the date of retrieval should be listed instead.

Thomson Reuters, The Laws of Australia (at 23 May 2013) 21 Human Rights, '4 Civil and Political Rights' 

Other Secondary Sources 

Material Type

 

Footnote Example

 

Bibliography Example

Law Reform Commission Reports

Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, Report No 108 (2008) vol 1, 259 [5.9].

Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, Report No 108 (2008) vol 1

Theses

Ivan Milton Vodanovich, The Criminal Jury Trial in Western Australia (Phd Thesis, University of Western Australia, 1989).

Vodanovich, Ivan Milton, The Criminal Jury Trial in Western Australia (Phd Thesis, University of Western Australia, 1989)

Conference Papers

Jenny Lin, 'Audits of Shareholder Panels' (Paper presented at the 17th Annual Congress of the World Auditors Association, Li, 12 April 1994).

Note: For conference proceedings that are published as a book, use the book chapter format.

Lin, Jenny, 'Audits of Shareholder Panels' (Paper presented at the 17th Annual Congress of the World Auditors Association, Li, 12 April 1994)

Class Lecture Notes: Print version received in lecture

Peter Sinden, 2013, Primary Sources of Law, lecture notes distributed in Introduction to LAWS1104 at The University of Western Australia, Crawley (at 2 November 2013).

Sinden, Peter, 2013, Primary Sources of Law, lecture notes distributed in Introduction to LAWS1104 at The University of Western Australia, Crawley (at 2 November 2013)

Class Lecture Notes: Accessed online   

Peter Sinden, Primary Sources of Law, lecture notes in LMS for Introduction to LAWS1104 at The University of Western Australia, Crawley (at 2 November 2013). 

Note: If retrieved online, details of access date and location should be included.

Sinden, Peter, Primary Sources of Law, lecture notes in LMS for Introduction to LAWS1104 at The University of Western Australia, Crawley (at 2 November 2013)

Websites

Material Type

 

Footnote Example

 

Bibliography Example

Websites: full date created  

International Whaling Commission, IWC Information (4 August 2010) <http://www.iwcoffice.org/commission.iwxmain.htm>.

Note: Use the year, month, and day of date created, if available.

 International Whaling Commission, IWC Information (4 August 2010) <http://www.iwcoffice.org/commission.iwxmain.htm>

Websites: no date

Law Society of Western Australia, History of the Law Society of Western Australia, <http://www.lawsocietywa.asn.au/history>.

 Law Society of Western Australia, History of the Law Society of Western Australia, <http://www.lawsocietywa.asn.au/history>