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APA citation style: Books and eBooks

A guide to using the APA 6th edition referencing system for in-text citations and reference lists.

APA examples: Books and eBooks

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Book: Single author

(Pegrum, 2009)

Pegrum, M. (2009). From blogs to bombs: The future of electronic technologies in education. Crawley, W.A: UWA Publishing.

Book: Two authors

(Page & Stritzke, 2015)

But when outside parenthesis:

Page and Stritzke (2015) suggested that ...

Page, A. C., & Stritzke, W. G. K. (2015). Clinical psychology for trainees: Foundations of science-informed practice (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Book: 3-5 authors

First citation:
(Ranzijn, McConnochie, & Nolan, 2009)

Subsequent citations:
(Ranzijn et al., 2009)

Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K., & Nolan, W. (2009). Psychology and indigenous Australians: Foundations of cultural competence. South Yarra, Vic: Palgrave Macmillan.

In-Text: If you have two or more references with the same first author and date, name as many authors as necessary to distinguish the references in every iteration.

Book: 6-7 authors
(See Journal Articles for 8 or more authors)

(Wolfe et al., 2015)

Wolfe, J. M., Kluender, K. R., Dennis, L. M., Bartoshuk, L. M., Herz, R. S., Lederman, S. J., & Merfeld, D. M. (2015). Sensation & perception (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. 

Book: Different editions

(Passer & Smith, 2015)

Passer, M. W., & Smith, R. E. (2015). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour (2nd ed.). North Ryde, NSW: McGraw-Hill Education. 

Book: No author

(The Australian Oxford dictionary, 1999)

The Australian Oxford dictionary (3rd ed.). (1999). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Book: Editor

(Hallinan, 2006)

Hallinan, M. T. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of the sociology of education. New York: Springer.

Book: 2 or more editors

(Day & Antonakis, 2012)

Day, D. V., & Antonakis, J. (Eds.). (2012). The nature of leadership (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Book: Organisation as author

(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2000)

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Population by age and sex, New South Wales, 30 June 2000 (ABS Cat. no. 3235.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.

Where the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Book: Chapter in edited book

(Groundwater-Smith, 2007)

Groundwater-Smith, S. (2007). As rain is to fields, so good teachers are to students. In S. Knipe (Ed.), Middle years schooling:  Reframing adolescence (pp. 151-170). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W: Pearson Education Australia.

eBook: Entire book

(Chisum, 2006)

Chisum, W. J. (2006). Crime reconstruction [Adobe Digital Editions]. Retrieved from Ebook Library.

eBook: Chapter - from a database

(Mitchell, 1913)

Mitchell, H. W. (1913). Alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses. In W. A. White & S. E. Jelliffe (Eds.), The modern treatment of nervous and mental diseases (Vol. 1, pp. 287-330). Retrieved from PsycBOOKS.

Book: Different works by same author in same year

Distinguish the works by placing ‘a’ ‘b’ ‘c’, etc. after the publication date

(Glenn & Johnson, 1964a)
(Glenn & Johnson, 1964b)

Glenn, W. H., & Johnson, D. A. (1964a). Calculating devices. London: John Murray.

Glenn, W. H., & Johnson, D. A. (1964b). Graphs. London: Murray.

Reference book: Entry

(Keyormarsi, O'Leary & Pardee, 2007)

Keyormarsi, K., O'Leary, N., & Pardee, A. B. (2007). Cell division. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology (9th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 618-621). New York: McGraw-Hill.

eReference book: Entry

(Krueger & Kling, 2000)

Krueger, R. E., & Kling, K. C. (2000). Validity. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 149-153). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Laboratory manual: Hard copy (O'Connor, 2013)

O'Connor, C.M. (2013). Investigations in Molecular Cell Biology [Laboratory manual]. Plymouth MI: Hayden-McNeill Publishing Co.

Laboratory manual: Electronic (O'Connor, 2013) 

O'Connor, C.M. (2013). Investigations in Molecular Cell Biology [Laboratory manual]. Retrieved from

Book: direct quotation or paraphrase

(Pegrum, 2009 p. 111)


Pegrum, (2009) reported that “results show...” (p. 111), ...

Multiple page numbers in sequence:

(Pegrum, 2009, pp. 111-114) notes that...

Multiple page numbers not in sequence should be separated by a comma and/or ampersand:

(Pegrum, 2009, pp. 111, 122 & 126) alludes to...

Pegrum, M. (2009). From blogs to bombs: The future of electronic technologies in education. Crawley, W.A: UWA Publishing

When paraphrasing text include page number/s in the in-text citation but do not use quotation marks. There is a right and a wrong way to paraphrase. - see the Study Smarter guide at