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Harvard citation style: Harvard examples

Reference examples by format

This guide divides references into different formats for ease of use. 

The overarching principle in referencing or citing is readers should be able to follow your sources if they are interested in finding out more about a topic.  You should acknowledge other authors whose ideas or information you have used.

Books

Ebooks

Journal Articles

Harvard Business School Case study

Websites or Online

Cases and Legislation

Company Information

Conference Papers & Proceedings

Newspapers

 

Audiovisual and Music

Standards & Patents

Unit Readings

Lecture Notes

Theses

Tables, Figures and Images

Personal Communication

Citing information someone else has cited

 

Books

The standard reference format for a book is:

Author(s) family name, Initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

 

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Examples

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Book: single author

(Holt 1997) or Holt (1997) wrote that…

Holt, DH 1997, Management principles and practices, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.

Reference type: Book

Book: 2 or 3 authors

(McCarthy, William & Pascale 1997)

McCarthey, EJ, William, DP & Pascale, GQ 1997, Basicmarketing, Irwin, Sydney.

Reference Type: Book

Enter all authors in the ‘Author’ field, each one on a separate line:

Family name, I O (Initials with spaces or periods after each.

Add title and other details, the same as for a single author book.

Book: more than 3 authors

(Bond et al. 1996)

Bond, WR, Smith, JT, Brown, KL & George, M 1996, Management of small firms, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.

Reference Type: Book

As above. Enter all authors in the ‘Author’ field. Use enter/return to place each author on a separate line. EndNote will automatically limit to 3 authors for the in-text citation, and will insert ‘et all.

Add title and other details the same as for a single author book.

Book: no author

(A history of Greece 1994)

A history of Greece 1994, Irwin, Sydney.

Book: editor

(Jones 1998)

Jones, MD (ed) 1998, Management in Australia, Academic Press, London.

Reference Type: Edited Book

Book: 2 or more editors

(Bullinger & Warnecke 1985)

Bullinger, HJ & Warnecke HJ (eds) 1985, Toward the factory of the future, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Reference Type: Edited Book

As above, each editor on a different line

Book: organisation as author

(Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2001)

Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2001, Aquaculture developments in Australia: a review of key economic issues, ABARE, Canberra.

Reference type: Book

Enter organisation name in the ’Author’ field. Add a comma after the Organisation name: this tells EndNote it is not a personal name.

Book: chapter or article in edited book

(Milkman 1998, p. 25)

Milkman, R 1998, ‘The new American workplace: High road or low road?” in P Thompson & C Warhurst, (eds), Workplaces of the future, pp. 22-34. Macmillan Press, London.

Reference type: Book section

In the ‘Author’ field enter the author of the chapter or section.

Use the ‘Title’ field for the title of the section or part.

In the ‘Editor’ field, enter details of the editor(s) of the whole book.

Use the ‘Book Title’ field for the title of the whole book.

In the ‘Pages’ field, write the page numbers of the chapter/section.

Book: edition other than first

(Drafke 2009)

Drafke, M 2009, The human side of organizations, 10th edn, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Reference type: Book

In the ‘Edition’ field write 2, 3, 4 etc. as appropriate.

Book: different works by same author in same year

(Bond 1991a) (Bond 1991b)

Bond, G 1991a, Business ethics, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.

Bond, G 1991b, Corporate governance, Irwin, London.

Dictionary or Encyclopedia

The Macquarie dictionary (2010) defines it as…

Do not include in reference list.

 

eBooks

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Ebook

(Drucker 2012)

Drucker, P 2012, Managing the non-profit organization, Routledge, London. Available from: Ebook Library. [29 September 2015].

Reference type: Electronic Book

Enter date in ‘Access date’ field and Database name in ‘Name of Database’ field.

Ebook: chapter or article in an edited Ebook

(White 2002, p. 112)

White, H 2002, ‘The westernization of world history’ in J Ruseǹˆ (ed) Western historical thinking: An intercultural debate, pp. 111 119. Berghahn Books, New York. Available from: ACLS Humanities E-Book. [29 September 2015].

Reference type: Electronic Book section.

As for book section / chapter above.

Enter date in ‘Access date’ field and Database name in ‘Name of Database’ field.

Ebook: chapter available via Unit Readings

(Birch 2013)

Birch, T 2013, ‘The trouble with history’ in A Clark & P Ashton, (eds), Australian history now, pp. 232-250. NewSouth Publishing, Sydney. Available from: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online. [29 September 2015].

Reference type: Electronic Book

Enter date in ‘Date Accessed’ field. In ‘Name of Database’ field type: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online

Ebook: freely available online (with no place of publication)

(de Grosbois 2015)

de Grosbois, T 2015, Mass influence: the habits of the highly influential, Wildfire Workshops. Available from: http://www.massinfluencethebook.com/. [27 January 2016]. If an eBook is “born digital” (it has only ever been published online) and no place of publication can be located, only list the publisher

Reference type: Electronic Book

In the date ‘Date Accessed’ field, enter the date you accessed the ebook.

Enter the book’s URL in the ‘URL’ field.

 

Journal articles

  • When citing journal articles with multiple authors, follow the same format for the author field as for books with multiple authors.
  • Take care when citing that you indicate which is the title of the ‘article’ and which is the title of the Journal.
  • Citations for online journals must have the access date and details of the database in which the journal appears online. [Note: Databases are 'bundles' of journals and a journal article found online will often be in a journal that is part of a bigger database.] See example: Journal article: electronic database.
  • When citing “born-digital” journal articles from an online journal (one that has never been produce in print form):
    • 1.   It is not necessary to include an issue or volume number, unless they are present.
    • 2.   Some digital articles do not have page numbers. For in-text citations for these articles, include a paragraph number in the place of page numbers, using the abbreviation ‘para’. If paragraphs are not numbered, count them to assign a number. For long articles, use section headings to break up the paragraph numbering. Enclose the section headings in single quotation marks within the in-text reference (e.g. Smith 2009, ‘Introduction’, para. 3).
  • When citing online journals that have a volume and/or issue number, follow the format for a Journal Article from an Electronic Database, substituting the database name for the URL of the article.

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Journal article: Available via Unit Readings

(Jennings 1997, p. 68)

Jennings, P 1997, ‘The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective’, International Small Business Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 63-75. Available from: The University of Western Australia Library Unit Readings. [1 September 2004].

Reference Type: Journal article

Enter access date in ‘Date Accessed’ field.

In ‘Name of Database’ field type: The University of Western Australia Library Unit Readings

Journal article: print

(Conley & Galeson 1998)

Conley, TG & Galeson, DW 1998, ‘Nativity and wealth in mid- nineteenth century cities’, Journal of Economic History, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 468-493.

Journal article: electronic database

(Liveris 2011)

Liveris, A 2011, ‘Ethics as a strategy’, Leadership Excellence, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 17-18. Available from: ProQuest. [13 October 2015].

Reference Type: Journal article

Enter access date in ‘Access Date’ field. In ‘Name Of Database’ field type the database name.

Please note: If information is exported by a database into the ‘URL’ field you must manually delete this data.

Journal article: 2 or 3 authors

(Thomas & Bosch 2005)

Thomas, K, & Bosch, B 2005, ‘An exploration of the impact of chronic fatigue syndrome and implications for psychological service provision’, E-Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 23-40. Available from: http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/download/4/13. [01 February 2017].

Reference Type: Journal article

Journal article: more than 3 authors

(Goodhew et al 2014)

Goodhew, SC, Edwards, M, Boal, HL, & Bell, J 2014, ‘Two objects or one? Similarity rather than complexity determines objecthood when resolving dynamic input’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000022.

[14 September 2018].

Reference Type: Journal article

Journal article: online only journal (volume & issue number available)

(Segon & Booth 2011)

Segon, M & Booth, C 2011, ‘Bribery: what do Australian managers know and what do they do?’, Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 15- 29. Available from: http://jbsge.vu.edu.au/article/view/206. [20 October 2014].

Reference Type: Journal article

Enter appropriate information in ‘Volume’,’ Issue’, ‘Pages’, ‘URL’, and ‘Access Date’ fields.

Journal article: online only journal (no volume & issue numbers, no page numbers)

(Bustamante 2014, ‘Public library of Cincinnati’, para. 4).

For direct quotes etc, provide a section heading and/or paragraph number, if there are no page numbers.

Bustamante, C 2014, ‘Libraries welcome writers in residence’,  Library Journal. Available from: http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2014/09/industry-news/libraries-welcome-writers-in-residence/. [29 September 2014].

Reference Type: Journal article

Leave ‘Volume’, ‘Issue’ and ‘Pages’ blank, Add URL to ‘URL’ field and access date to ‘Access Date’ field.

 

Harvard Business School Case Study

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Harvard Business School Case Study: retrieved from LMS

(Rivkin, Thomke & Beyersdorfer 2013)

Rivkin, JW, Thomke, SH & Beyersdorfer, D 2013, LEGO (A): the crisis, HBS No. 9-713-478, Harvard Business School Publications, Boston. Available from: The University of Western Australia Learning Management System. [29 September 2015].

Reference type: Web page

Add authors as per book. Include Title and HBS number in ‘Title’ field, in the ‘URL’ field add: The University of Western Australia Learning Management System

Websites or Online

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Website

(University Library 2015)

University Library 2016, University Library Home page, 26 February 2016, The University of Western Australia. Available from: http://www.library.uwa.edu.au. [31 March 2016].

When referencing a webpage within a website, including the following:

  • Author - the person or organisation responsible for the site
  • Site date - the year the site was created or last revised
  • Title of the webpage
  • Name of the sponsor of the source (if applicable)
  • URL
  • Access Date of viewing the source

Reference type: Web page

Author is the person or entity responsible for the page.

Title is the University Library Home page.

Webpage

(Weida & Stolley 2013)

Weida, S & Stolley, K 2013, Developing strong thesis statements. Available from: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/1/. [13 October 2015].

Reference type: Web page

When referencing a webpage within a website, including the following:

  • Author - the person or organisation responsible for the site
  • Site date - the year the site was created or last revised
  • Title of the webpage
  • Name of the sponsor of the source (if applicable)
  • URL
  • Access Date of viewing the source

Webpage: no date

(Apprentice Support Australia n.d.)

Apprentice Support Australia n.d., What is an apprenticeship. Available from: http://www.apprenticeshipsupport.com.au/Employers/What-is-an-apprenticeship. [20 October 2015].

Reference type: Web page

Write n.d. (for no date) in the ‘Year’ field.

Webpage: no author

(Improve indigenous housing 2007)

Use the first few words of the page title.

Improve indigenous housing now, governments told 2007. Available from: http://www.raia.com.au/i-cms?page=10220. [20 October2015].

Document from a webpage

(Department of the Premier and Cabinet 2009)

Department of the Premier and Cabinet 2009, Pandemic planning in the workforce, Queensland Government. Available from: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/flu/documents/Fact-sheet-3_Qkit-infrastructure.pdf. [13 October 2015].

To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to give the home page for a website rather than the exact URL of the page you are referencing as long as the website has a search facility.

Reference type: Web page

Blog

(Mercoulia 2015)

Mercoulia, P 2015, ‘A glimpse into coal’s future’, Greenpeace Australia Pacific Blog, blog post, 15 June. Available from: http://www.greenpeace.org.au/blog/a-glimpse-into-coals-future/. [13 October 2015].

Reference type: Blog

Enter ‘Author’, ‘Year’, ‘Title of entry’ and ‘Title of Weblog’.

In ‘Type of medium’ field, enter: blog post, date month (eg. Blog post, 18 January).

Enter URL and access date.

Computer software

(Thomson Reuters 2014)

Thomson Reuters 2014, EndNote X7.2.1, software program, Thomson Reuters, New York.

Reference type: Computer programme

Image with no known creator or date

(Nefertari with Isis n.d.)

Nefertari with Isis n.d., image. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ankh_isis_nefertari.jpg.[13 October 2015].

Reference type: Web page

In ‘Author’ field, enter title of image.

For ‘type of medium’, enter image.

Image with known creator available via the web

(Colli 2009)

Colli, MG 2009, Bilbao_6 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, image. Available from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/52355315@N08/5757476385/. [13 October 2015].

Reference type: Artwork

Enter creator in ‘Author’ field.

Enter image in ‘Type of work’ field.

Podcast

(Crawford 2009)

Crawford, M 2009, Shop class as soulcraft, audio podcast, Future Tense, Radio National, ABC Radio, Sydney, 5 November. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/futuretense/shop-class-as-soulcraft/3098308. [9 March 2016].

Reference type: Podcast

‘Type of work’ is audio podcast.

Enter audio podcast in the’ Type’ field.

Wiki

(‘Internet entrepreneur’

2012)

Internet entrepreneur 2012, Wikiversity, wiki, 6 January 2016. Available from: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Internet_entrepreneur. [31 March 2016].

As wikis usually feature user generated content there is usually no named author. Cite the title of the Wiki article and date of last revision.

Reference type: Web page

Facebook

(UWA Library 2015)

UWA Library 2015, Special collections in the Reid Library, Facebook post, 14 April. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/UWALibrary. [22 October 2015].

Reference type: Web page

Enter date month (eg. 14 April) in ‘Last Update’ field.

Enter Facebook post in ‘Type of Medium’ field.

Twitter

(Gillard 2014)

Gillard, J [JuliaGillard] 2014, ‘Stella Young was a shining light for care and action on disabilities. We mourn her passing and rededicate ourselves to her spirit. JG’, Twitter post, 7 December. Available from: http://twitter.com/JuliaGillard. [22 October 2015].

Reference type: Blog

Enter Twitter post, date Month in the ‘Type of Medium’ field (eg. Twitter post, 7 December).

YouTube

(TED Talks 2013)

TED Talks 2013, Ken Robinson: how to escape education’s death valley, YouTube video, 10 May. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wX78iKhInsc. [22 October 2015].

Reference type: Web page

Enter You Tube video in ‘Type of Medium’ field and enter date published in ‘Last Update’ field.

MOOCs video

(Austin 2015)

Austin, R 2015, Strategic management, Copenhagen Business School Coursera MOOC, 15 February – 21 March. Available from: https://www.coursera.org/learn/strategic-management. [8 February 2015].

Reference type: Web page

Enter MOOC Publisher and dates in the ‘Publisher’ field (eg. Copenhagen Business School Coursera MOOC, 15 February – 21 March).

Cases and Legislation

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Cases

(R v Tang (2008) 237 CLR 1)

R v Tang (2008) CLR 1.

Reference type: Case

In-text citation must be entered manually into your document text. E.g.

The case of R v Tang (2008) CLR 1. Set an important precedent…

Acts of Parliament

(Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 3)

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth).

Reference type: Legal rule or regulation

In the ‘Author’ field enter the name of the Act and relevant section, followed by a comma. In the ‘Title’ field put just the name of the Act.

Delegated Legislation

Police Regulations 2003 (Vic) r6

Enter the title of the regulations manually in your document, using the abbreviation r, or rr for multiple regulations. They do not need to be part of your reference list.

Bills

(Corporations Amendment Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth))

Corporations Amendment Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth).

Reference type: Bill

Note: Bill titles are not italicised because they are ‘unpublished’ materials.

Company Information

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Company report

(National Australia Bank Ltd 2015)

National Australia Bank Limited 2015, NAB - 2015 Annual Financial Report, 16 November 2015. Available from: DatAnalysis Premium. [24 March 2016].

Reference type: Report

The report is produced by the NAB (author) and is made available via the DatAnalysis Premium database.

Company profile

(IBISWorld 2014)

IBISWorld 2014, Mrs Mac's Pty Ltd: Limited Profile Report. Available from: IBISWorld. [29 March 2016].

Reference type: Report

The report is a profile of Mrs Mac’s Pty Ltd by IBISWorld. (No author is listed). Mrs Mac’s is a private company so the report is a limited profile.

Market research reports

(Euromonitor International 2015)

Euromonitor International 2015, Biscuits and Snack Bars in Argentina: Category Briefing, 12 Oct 2015. Available from: Passport. [29 March 2016].

Reference type: Report

Industry profile

(Richardson 2015)

Richardson, A 2015, IBISWorld Industry Report C1173: Biscuit manufacturing in Australia. Available from: IBISWorld. [29 March 2016].

Note: if no author is listed, list the database provider as the author.

Reference type: Report

Financial data

(S&P/ASX200 2009)

S&P/ASX200 2009, S&PASX daily index data 2000-2009. Available from: Datastream. [20 May 2010].

Reference type: Dataset(s)

Enter creators of data in ‘Investigators’ field.

If data is from a Database enter its name in ‘name of Database’ field. If from a webpage enter the URL in the ‘URL’ field.

ABS datasets

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012) - but this can be manually edited to ABS for subsequent in-text citations

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012, Australian demographic statistics 2012, cat. no. 3101.0, ABS, Canberra. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au. [26 October 2012].

Reference type: Choose Dataset(s).

Author is Australian Bureau of Statistics but this can be manually edited to ABS for in text citations. Add catalogue number in the ‘Study Number’ field – cat. no. xxxx.

Unpublished PowerPoint presentation

(Rio Tinto 2015)

Rio Tinto 2015, Occupational health and safety overview, PowerPoint presentation, Rio Tinto.

Note that the title is not in italics as the ‘work’ was not published. As the reader will not be able to locate the PowerPoint online, you should attach it as an appendix item. Ensure you have permission to do this first!

Reference type: Unpublished work.

Conference Papers & Proceedings

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Conference proceeding paper: print

(Bird & Smart 2010)

Bird, R & Smart, M 2010, ‘Assigning state taxes in a federal country: the case of Australia’, Melbourne Institute – Australia’s future tax and transfer policy conference proceedings of a conference, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, Melbourne, pp. 72-94.

Reference type: Conference Paper

Conference proceeding paper: electronic

(Fan, Gordon & Pathak 2000)

Fan, W, Gordon, MD & Pathak, R 2000, ‘Personalization of search engine services for effective retrieval and knowledge management’, Proceedings of the twenty-first international conference on information systems, pp. 20-34. Available from: ACM Portal: ACM Digital Library. [24 June 2004].

Reference type: Conference Paper

Conference proceeding paper: unpublished

(Bowden & Fairley 1996)

Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange’, paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Reference type: Conference Paper

Newspapers

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Newspaper: print

(Devlin 2011)

Devlin, M 2011, 'Keys found to success by the less privileged', The Australian, 16 November, p. 32.

Reference type: Newspaper Article

Newspaper: electronic database

(Garvey 2015)

Garvey, P 2015, ‘Investors sue after contract problems’, The Australian, 10 November, p. 20. Available from: Factiva. [10 November 2015].

Reference type: Newspaper Article

Newspaper: from website

(Reed 2015)

Reed, S 2015, ‘Shift to lower-carbon energy is too slow, report warns’, New York Times, 9 November. Available from: www.nytimes.com. [10 November 2015].

Reference type: Newspaper Article

Newspaper: no author

(‘Foreign cyber-spies’ 2009)

‘Foreign cyber-spies’ 2009, Sydney Morning Herald, 24 November, p. 7.

Reference type: Newspaper Article

Audiovisual and Music

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

DVD recording

(Art Nation 2010)

Art Nation 2010, DVD recording, Australian Broadcasting

Corporation, Sydney.

Reference type: Audio-visual Material

Note: If the creator is not known, the in-text information can be manually added or incorporated into the body of your writing.

Television programme

(Immigration nation : the secret life of us 2011)

Immigration nation: the secret life of us 2011, television program, SBS, Sydney, 28 January.

Reference type: Audio-visual Material

Note as for DVD recording.

Interview on radio or radio program

Tony Abbott defended the government’s approach to key budget measures (Woodley 2014).

Woodley, N 2014, The world today, radio program, ABC News, Sydney, 8 December.

Reference type: Audio-visual Material

Note that here the creator is known.

Standards & Patents

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Examples

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Patent

(Cookson 1985)

Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

Reference type: Patent

Standard: retrieved from database

(Standards Australia 2008)

Standards Australia 2008, Personal flotation devices general requirements, AS 4758.1-2008. Available from: Australian Standards. [1 December 2008].

Reference type: Standard

Standard: published

(Standards Australia 1994)

Standards Australia 1994, Information processing text and office systems – office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications, AS/NZS 3951.10:1994, Standards Australia, NSW.

Reference type: standard

Unit Readings

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Examples

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Journal article: available via Unit Readings

(Jennings 1997)

Jennings, P 1997, ‘The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective’, International Small Business Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 63-75. Available from: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online. [1 September 2015].

Reference Type: Journal article

Enter date in ‘date accessed’ field.

In ‘Available from’ field, type: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online

eBook: chapter available via Unit Readings

(Birch 2013)

Birch, T 2013, ‘The trouble with history’ in Australian history now, eds A Clark & P Ashton, NewSouth Publishing, Sydney, pp. 232-250. Available from: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online. [29 September 2015].

Reference type: Electronic Book Section

Enter date in ‘date accessed’ field.

In ‘Available from’ field, type: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online

Lecture Notes

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Examples

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Lecture notes

(Foster 2004)

Foster, T 2004, Balance sheets, lecture notes distributed in Financial Accounting 101. Available from: http://www.lms.uwa.edu.au.

 

Note that the title is not in italics as the ‘work’ was not published.

Reference type: Unpublished work

Fields: ‘Author’, ‘Year’, ‘Title’,  ‘URL’: http://www.lms.uwa.edu.au.

‘Type of Medium’: lecture notes distributed in Financial Accounting 101

Course reader

(Graber 2007)

Graber, D 1997, 'Elections in the television age', Mass media and American politics, pp. 228-345. CQ Press, Washington DC. Available from: COMM2001 Communication and Mass Media Course Reader, Semester 2, 2012, University of Western Australia.

Reference type: Book section

Add details of course reader to the ‘Name of Database’ field.

PowerPoint Presentation

(Smith 2015)

Smith, M 2015, Management 101, PowerPoint presentation, MGMT1234: Foundations of Management, The University of Western Australia. Available from: http://www.lms.uwa.edu.au. [20 October 2015].

Reference type: Web Page

Fields:’ Author’, ‘Year’, ‘Title’, ‘Publisher’, ‘Access Date’, URL: http://www.lms.uwa.edu.au

‘Type of Medium’: PowerPoint presentation, MGMT1234: Foundations of Management

Theses

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Thesis: unpublished

(Hos 2005)

Hos, JP 2005, Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes, PhD thesis, University of Western Australia.

Reference type: Unpublished work

Thesis: published

(May 2007)

May, B 2007, A survey of radical velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud, PhD thesis, Canopus Publishing, University of Bristol.

Reference type: Thesis

Please note: The word ‘thesis’ will be automatically added to the ‘Thesis Type’ field.

Thesis: retrieved from Database

(Cincura 2012)

Cincura, M 2012, Beyond profit-centric: transcendent business modelling, PhD thesis, Swinburne University of Technology. Available from: Trove. [12 August 2013].

Reference type: Thesis

If you accessed the thesis online you can add the date you viewed it and the ‘URL’ or ‘Name of Database’ as appropriate. Please note: The word ‘thesis’ will be automatically added to the ‘Thesis Type’ field.

Tables, figures and images

The in text-citation examples given in this section are for use as captions for a table, or for an image. For example, if you copy a table from another work, or if you create a table using some data from another work, you must provide a caption under the table. This caption should contain an in-text reference similar to the examples below.

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

All or part of a table, figure, or data used in

text: from a print Journal

Note. From ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices using dynamic modelling’ (Ackerman & Stein 2008, p. 634)

OR

Note. The data in column # are from ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices using dynamic modelling’ (Ackerman & Stein 2008, p. 634)

Ackerman, D & Stein ED 2008. ‘Evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices using dynamic modelling’, Journal of Environmental Engineering, vol. 134, no. 8, pp. 629-639.

Reference type: Journal Article

All or part of a table, figure or data used in text: from a book

Note. From [or The data in column # are from] Thermophysical properties of fluids (Assael 1998, p. 70)

Assael, M 1998, Thermophysical properties of fluids, Imperial College Press, London.

Reference type: Book

All or part of a table, figure or data used in text: from the web

Note. From [or The data in column # are from] International merchandise imports Australia, January 2009 (ABS 2009)

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, International merchandise imports Australia, January 2009 cat. no. 5439.0. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/5439.0?OpenDocument>. [6 March 2014].

Reference type: Choose Dataset(s).

If the author is Australian Bureau of Statistics, this can be

manually edited to ABS for in-text citations. Add ABS catalogue number in the ‘Study Number’ field – cat. no. xxxx.

Personal communication

Material Type

In-Text Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Telephone call, interview, e-mail, etc.

If the information you are referencing was obtained by a personal communication such as a telephone call, interview or email, this should be documented in the text and not added to the reference list. If desired you can add the abbreviation pers.comm. to the reference.

When interviewed on 6 June 2008, Mr Ward confirmed…

(Mrs S Byrne 2012, pers.comm., 6 June)

Citing information someone else has cited

Also known as secondary citations. It is generally advisable to cite the original source directly if possible. However if you cannot access the original source, it is appropriate to cite the citing source. In the example below, we cannot access the original work by O’Reilly. We have therefore cited Byrne, as Byrne has cited O’Reilly’s work.

Material Type

In-Text example

Reference List Example

EndNote (Harvard – Business 2016)

Citing information that someone else has cited

(O’Reilly, cited in Byrne 2008)

Byrne, A 2008, ‘Web 2.0 strategies in libraries and information services’, The Australian Library Journal, vol. 57 no. 4, pp. 365-376.

In the reference list provide the details of the author who has done the citing.

Do not provide a reference list entry for the source you have been unable to access.