The Oxford Referencing Style has two main features, in-text reference numbers with accompanying footnotes which appear within the text of your assignment and are used to acknowledge each source you use and the reference list which appears at the end of your assignment and is a complete list of everything you have cited.
Please remember that there are many variations on the Oxford style of referencing. The examples presented in this guide are recommendations only. Always check your unit outline to determine any preferences. No matter which variations on this style you use, the most important thing is to be consistent throughout your assignment.
Intext references with footnotes
In the 1916 edition of Brunning's popular home gardening manual, The Australian Gardener, the section on vegetable pests was prefaced with the comment:
As many new mixtures for spraying have been placed on the market, several experiments have been conducted by the Entomological Branch with the extermination of pests. Some of the mixtures have proved successful, and it is well to know at the beginning of the season what are the best pest materials to use.1
These materials included Benzole emulsion, Pestend, Clift's manurual insecticide and 'Harbas' red oil, as well as Paris green, lead arsenate, and various tobacco preparations. Lead arsenate was recommended for home garden use in the control of cabbage moth, cutworm, pumpkin beetle, slugs and snails, as well as codlin moth, and small tins of lead arsenate for home garden use were available from seedsmen. It is likely that some home gardeners welcomed the opportunity to abandon the time-consuming practice of trunk bandaging, particularly as they were assured that it would 'not be necessary if the trees are sprayed several times with arsenate of lead'.2 harry Simpson grew up at Rosemont, a stately home set in one and a quarter acres of garden in the Melbourne suburb of Surrey Hills. The garden consisted mainly of fruit trees and roses, and some 60 years later, Harry recalled that 'The everlasting spraying seemed to go on endlessly. Arsenate of lead was all that was used as far as I can remember though I think nicotine came in somewhere'.3
Tobacco was used as a contact insecticide in various forms: as a dust, an infusion, and in a processed form - nicotine sulphate-in preparations such as Nikoteen, Black leaf 40, and Surpazoll. Botanicals such as quassia chips and hellebore powder were also available, though recommeded only occasionally, as were a range of 'non-poisonous' patend insecticides, whose formulae were jealously guarded. Several of the patent preparations were offered in forms which were ready to use or required only dilution in water. Whereas these would have been fairly convenient, it is likely that the combination of a large garden and a serious pest infestation would have been necessary before a home gardener would have gone to the effort of making up one of the various home-made washes or emulsions which were also recommeded. For example, kerosene emulsion- which by 1916 was recommended for use on vegetables as well as fruit trees-required 2 pounds of 'Lotus Soap' to be dissolved in 10 gallons of simmering water, and half a pint of kerosene added whilst hot, 'the whole being churned until thoroughly emulsified'. The emulsion was then to be applied with a spray pump, in the evening or on cloudy days. While this was done,
Great care must be taken to keep the mixture agitated, and the vessel used to carry the mixture shoudl be thoroughly emptied each time before refilling, or the kerosene, which never thoroughly mixes, may accumulate and give too strong a dose.4
Given the expense and inconvenience of the alternatives, it is likely that many gardeners, particularly those with small- to medium-sized gardens, would have stuck to the remedies on hand-such as soapy waters-and the various manual (or animal) controls still recommeded in some gardening magazines and books. The prevalence of suburban poultry meant that many suburban gardeners would have been able to follow the Home Gardener's recommendations, in 1917, that:
To give the poultry an occasional run in the orchard will be of some benefit to both them and the trees, as fowls eat many of the caterpillars that are found in orchards. In addition, the manure will be of some use to the trees.5
Falkner, F.A., The Australian Gardener: An Epitome of Horticulture and Agriculture for the State of Victoria, 18th edn, Melbourne, F.H. Brunning, 1916.
'Poultry Among the Fruit Trees', Home Gardener, September 1917, pp. 213-220.
Simpson, Harry, 'Memories of Surrey Hills', Papers Read Before the Box Hill Historical Society, vol. 4, 1974/75, pp. 20-25.