This guide divides references into different formats for ease of use. Hover your cursor over the APA Formats tab above to select the format you want, or select from the links below.
Rules for naming authors, in-text and the reference list, are given mainly under Books & eBooks but they apply to all reference types. In most examples of in-text citations with multiple authors only the first iteration of the citation is given.
|Books and eBooks||3-5 authors repeated citations||For 1,2,3-5 or 6-7 authors see examples under Books & eBooks|
|Chapter in book||Article from CMO||8 or more authors|
|Conference proceedings and papers||Author & publisher the same||Author/year same, 2 or more works|
|Dictionary/encyclopaedia entries||Citing a work that someone else has cited||Editor/s|
|Images||Direct quotes & paraphrases||First author/ year same, 3+ authors 2+ works|
|Journal articles||Multiple citations in same parentheses||Linking multiple authors: & or and|
|Multimedia & Software||No date available (n.d.)||No author - Article|
|Music resources||Numbered edition other than 1st||No author - Book|
|Newspapers & Magazines||Parentheses () or brackets  for extra information||Organisation as author|
|Reports||Retrieved from a database|
|Standards & Patents||Retrieval date (if required)
|Tables & Figures (republished or
|Title which includes a subtitle|
|Web sources (pages, blogs, social media, etc)|