The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) is the authorative source for the Chicago Referencing Style
Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. It lets you acknowledge the ideas or words of others if you use them in your work and helps avoid plagiarism.
Referencing also demonstrates that you've read relevant backgound literature and you can provide authority for statements you make in your assignments.
The 3-em dash followed by a full stop is used for successive entries by the same author or editor and replaces the name after the first apperance in the bibliography.
Crowley, John. E. The invention of comfort: sensibilities and design in early modern Britain and early America. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
— — —. Imperial landscapes: Britain's global visual culture, 1745-1820. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.
The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) Notes and Bibliography and (2) Author-Date. This guide only covers the Notes and Bibliography system (16th A).
The Notes and Bibliography (NB) system, provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citations ("Notes") and a bibliography.
Each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary you must cite your source by using a Note. Notes are always listed together in sequential order at the end of a page.
Each citation consists of two parts: a superscript number in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced and a corresponding full-sized number at the start of the endnote.
|Footnote||11. footnote example|
The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again in the same document, the note should only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and relevant page number(s).
If you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, the corresponding note for the second citation onwards should use the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin “ibidem,” which means “in the same place.” If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).
e.g. 7. Schillaci, Architectural renderings, 251.
8. Ibid., 271-273.
10. Ibid., 450.
11. Smith, Contemporary art, 17.
12. Ibid., 20.
In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. The bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work and should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading and act as an indication to the reader of the breadth and depth of an author's research.
All included sources (books, articles, websites, etc.) in the bibliography are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title may be used instead.
All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and facts of publication.
The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, that is the the last name is listed first followed by a comma and the first name.
Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.
The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.
In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by full stops.
Author's name is in the normal order
eg Philip D. Goldswain
Author’s name is inverted, place the last name first and separate the last name and first name with a comma
eg Goldswain, Philip D.
All elements of the citation are separated by commas
Publication information is in brackets
|All elements are separated with a full stop|
Include reference to specific page numbers or other identifying information
|Refer to the entire item|
Please note this guide has given a basic overview of the formatting of the bibliography. For more information about bibliographies (including Selected Bibliographies, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic Essays), please consult Chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.